Day 1 :
State University of New York, USA
Time : 09:15-10:00
Douglas A. Feldman is Professor E meritus of Anthropology from the College at Brock port, State University of New York, former Chair of the Department of Anthropology and former President of the Society for Medical Anthropology. He is author/editor of seven books about HIV/AIDS and anthropology, most recently AIDS, Culture and Gay Men. He has conducted social research on HIV/AIDS in the United States, Hungary, Zambia, Uganda, Rwanda and Senegal. He is the recipient of the Kimball Award for Public and Applied Anthropology and the Distinguished Service Award of the AIDS and Anthropology Research Group.
Research was conducted among gay and bisexual men in Hungary during 2011 to try to learn why Hungarians have a relatively low rate of HIV/AIDS in their country. It was initially hypothesized that men who have sex with men in Hungary have sex with condoms with non-Hungarians, but sex without condoms with other Hungarian men, creating a functional “firewall” keeping most HIV/AIDS infection out of Hungary. While our hypothesis was inconclusive, likely due to small sample size in this qualitative study, it examined key aspects of Hungarian gay male culture. Cultures and subcultural diff erences are important in understanding Hungarian gay male behavior. Th ere was an emphasis on romance and monogamy as an ideal, the importance of personal reputation, a lack of a strong gay community, failure to use condoms when in love, sexual fantasies where condoms were irrelevant, infrequent HIV testing but accurate knowledge of safer sex. One possible solution would be to encourage the use of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), a daily pill which reduces the risk of HIV infection, among Hungarian MSM who refuses to use condoms.
University of Massachusetts Boston, USA
Time : 10:00-10:45
Adenrele Awotona is a Professor of Urban Planning and Community Studies, he is the founder and Director of the Center for Rebuilding Sustainable Communities after Disasters and a former Dean of the College of Public and Community Service at the University of Massachusetts, Boston, USA. He was previously a Director of Studies for the British Council International Seminars (“Reconstruction after disasters”) in the UK where he has also served at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne as a Director of Graduate Studies in architecture and urban design. Through research, consultancy and teaching, he has professional experience in several countries in fi ve continents. Similarly, he has been a principal investigator on major research projects funded by various agencies in the USA and UK. A stream of publications has, therefore, emanated from his research and consultancy services. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge, UK and a Certifi cate from Harvard University’s Institute of Management and Leadership in Education.
Statement of the Problem: The United Nations General Assembly adopted the 2030 Development Agenda titled Transforming our world: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development on September 25, 2015. It outlines 17 Sustainable Development Goals the first of which calls for an end to “poverty in all its forms everywhere.” Various studies have, however, indicated that the multifaceted forces, both internal and external, which work together to generate and sustain the circumstances of pervasive poverty universally have yet to be properly understood.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The purpose of this presentation is to examine how some of these forces, especially those related to environmental degradation, pitiable environmental health conditions and vulnerability of the underprivileged to disasters of all types, are major hindrances to the abolition of poverty in all places. It also analyzes the complex fundamental causes infl uencing the vulnerability of people and social structures.
Findings, Conclusion & Significance: Disasters, unplanned urban development, ecosystem degradation, and fragile livelihoods undermine the sustainable development of communities. So do inequalities; weak institutions (poor governance, political instability, underdeveloped fi nancial markets, and lack of supportive institutional and policy environments); unresponsive legal and regulatory frameworks; inadequate infrastructural development (including food and nutrition insecurity; inadequate water supply, squalid sanitary conditions and poor waste management; widespread illiteracy and underdeveloped information and communication technologies; lack of healthcare facilities and medical networks; ineffi cient transport networks; and lack of safeguards of urban areas against erosion, flooding, landslides, and disasters); as well as insuffi cient formal structures for environmental sustainability and climate change (such as meager information management systems; almost nonexistence of relevant public education amongst government and community-based agencies).
Recommendations: There is a need for a comprehensive and integrative approach to public policy formulation and implantation that encompasses development planning, human development and disaster risk reduction. This should be addressed through multi-level government and grassroots community efforts, cross-sector initiatives and global actions.